Evidence-Based Healthcare has three (3) major components; the Doctors clinical experience and expertise, the patient’s value and expectation for care and the best external evidence available.
There is an extensive amount of scientific papers on the subject of chiropractic and closely related topics which can be found at any large university health library, including that found at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College in Toronto.
Below is an example list of the various types of studies on a wide assortment of topics. The design types include Meta-Analysis, Systematic Reviews, Randomized Control Trials (RCT), Cohort Studies, Cross-sectionals, Case Reports as well as editorials, opinions and philosophical ideas.
About Pediatric Chiropractic Care
Chiropractors have been providing safe, effective care for infants and children for over 100 years. Pediatrics is not only standard curriculum within all chiropractic colleges, but there is also post-graduate level training programs for doctors who decide to pursue the field at a ‘mastery’ level. The World Health Organizations (WHO) has set out curriculum standards for all chiropractic colleges, which includes pediatric care.
There are published pediatric chiropractic textbooks, clinical practice guidelines addressing best practices for chiropractic care of young children and many peer-reviewed research journals on the subject of pediatric chiropractic care.
General Chiropractic Sources
- Alderson, R. Scott, DC, and George J. Muhs, DC, DABCN, CCN. “The Effects of Mild Compression on Spinal Nerve Roots with Implications for Models of Vertebral Subluxation and Clinical Effects of Chiropractic Adjustment.” J. Vertebral Subluxation Res. 4.2 (2001): n.pag. Print.
- Budgell, Brian S. “Reflex Effects of Subluxation: The Autonomic Nervous System.”Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23.2 (2000): 104-06. Print.
- Carrick, Frederick R., DC, PhD. “Changes in Brain Function after Manipulation of the Cervical Spine.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 20.8 (1997): 529-45. Print.
- Dishman, J. Donald, Douglas S. Greco, and Jeanmarie R. Burke. “Motor-Evoked Potentials Recorded from Lumbar Erector Spinae Muscles: A Study of Corticospinal Excitability Changes Associated with Spinal Manipulation.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 31.4 (2008): 258-70. Print.
- Eingorn, Alex M., and George J. Muhs. “Rationale for Assessing the Effects of Manipulative Therapy on Autonomic Tone by Analysis of Heart Rate Variability.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 22.3 (1999): 161-65. Print.
- Haavik-Taylor, Heidi, and Bernadette Murphy. “Cervical Spine Manipulation Alters Sensorimotor Integration: A Somatosensory Evoked Potential Study.” Clinical Neurophysiology 118.2 (2007): 391-402. Print.
- Taylor, Heidi Haavik, and Bernadette Murphy. “Altered Sensorimotor Integration With Cervical Spine Manipulation.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 31.2 (2008): 115-26. Print.
- Taylor, Heidi Haavik, and Bernadette Murphy. “The Effects of Spinal Manipulation on Central Integration of Dual Somatosensory Input Observed After Motor Training: A Crossover Study.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics33.4 (2010): 261-72. Print.
- Kent, Christopher, DC. “Models of Vertebral Subluxation: A Review.” J Vertebral Sub Res 1.1 (1996): 11-17. Print.
- Rome, Peter L., DC, MACC. “Neurovertebral Influence on Visceral and ANS Function: Some of the Evidence To Date – Part II: Somatovisceral.” Chiropr J
Aust 40 (2010): 9-33. Print.
- Sato, Akio, MD, PhD. “The Reflex Effects of Spinal Somatic Nerve Stimulation on Visceral Function.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 15.1 (1992):
- Scheer, Justin K., Jessica A. Tang, Justin S. Smith, Frank L. Acosta, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Benjamin Blondel, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, and Christopher P. Ames. “Cervical Spine Alignment, Sagittal Deformity, and Clinical Implications.” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine 19.2 (2013): 141-59. Print.
- Schey, William L. “Vertebral Malformations and Associated Somatovisceral Abnormalities.” Clin. Radiol. 27 (1976): 341-53. Print.
- Harrison, Donald, Tad. J. Janik, S. J. Troyanovich, D. Harrison and Chris Colloca. “Evaluation of the Assumptions Used to Derive an Ideal Normal Cervical Spine Model”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. (1997): 246.
- Troyanovich. S. J., D. Harrison and D. D. Harrison. “Structural Rehabilitation of the Spine and Posture: Rational for Treatment Beyond the Resolution of Symptoms”. Jornal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. (1998): 37.
- Seaman, David R., DC, and James F. Winterstein, DC. “Dysafferentation: A Novel Term to Describe the Neuropathophysiological Effects of Joint Complex Dysfunction. A Look at Likely Mechanisms of Symptom Generation.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 21 (1998): 267-80. Print.
- Slosberg, Malik, DC. “Effects of Altered Afferent Articular Input on Sensation, Proprioception, Muscle Tone and Sympathetic Reflex Responses.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther11 (1988): 400-08. Print.
- Welch, Arlene, and Ralph Boone. “Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Specific Diversified Adjustments to Chiropractic Vertebral Subluxations of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine.” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 7.3 (2008): 86-93. Print.
- Troyanovich, S. J., Deed Harrison, D. D. Harrison. “Structural Rehabilitation of the Spine and Posture: Rational For Treatment Beyond The Resolution of Symptoms”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapy.
Neck & Back Pain
- Heymann, Wolfgang J. Von, Patrick Schloemer, Juergen Timm, and Bernd Muehlbauer. “Spinal High-Velocity Low Amplitude Manipulation in Acute Nonspecific Low Back Pain.” Spine 38.7 (2013): 540-48. Print.
- Hurwitz, Eric L., Hal Morgenstern, Gerald F. Kominski, Fei Yu, and Lu-May Chiang. “A Randomized Trial of Chiropractic and Medical Care for
Patients With Low Back Pain.” Spine 31.6 (2006): 611-21. Print.
- Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis.
Headaches and Whiplash Associated Disorders
- Bogduk, Nikolai, and Narayan Yoganandan. “Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine Part 3: Minor Injuries.” Clinical Biomechanics 16.4 (2001): 267-75.
- Curatolo, Michele, Steen Petersen-Felix, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Carmela Giani, Alex M. Zbinden, and Bogdan P. Radanov. “Central Hypersensitivity in Chronic Pain After Whiplash Injury.” The Clinical Journal of Pain 17.4 (2001): 306-15. Print.
- Hawk, Cheryl, Raheleh Khorsan, Anthony J. Lisi, Randy J. Ferrance, and Marion Willard Evans. “Chiropractic Care for Nonmusculoskeletal Conditions: A Systematic Review with Implications for Whole Systems Research.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 13.5 (2007): 491-512. Print.
- Schoenen, J. “Exteroceptive Suppression of Temporalis Muscle Activity in Patients with Chronic Headache and in Normal Volunteers: Methodology, Clinical and Pathophysiological Relevance.” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain33.1 (1993): 3-17. Print.
- Bryans, Roland, Martin Descarreaux, Mireille Duranleau, Henri Marcoux, Brock Potter, Rick Ruegg, Lynn Shaw, Robert Watkin, and Eleanor White. “Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Chiropractic Treatment of Adults With Headache.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 34.5 (2011): 274-89. Print.
- Alcantara, Joel, and Martine Cossette. “Intractable Migraine Headaches during Pregnancy under Chiropractic Care.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 15.4 (2009): 192-97. Print.
- Biondi, David M. “Noninvasive Treatments for Headache.” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 5.3 (2005): 355-62. Print.
- Biedermann, Heiner, MD. “Manual Medicine of Functional Disorders in Children.”Medical Veritas 3 (2006): 803-14. Print.
- Wiberg, Jesper M.m., Jan Nordsteen, and Niels Nilsson. “The Short-term Effect of Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Infantile Colic: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial with a Blinded Observer.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 22.8 (1999): 517-22. Print. Eister, E. “Infants with Acid Reflux and Colic Undergoing Upper Cervical Chiropractic Care to Correct Vertebral Subluxations: A Retrospective Analysis of Outcome”. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal and Family Health. (2009): 1-7. Waterdown
- Olafsdottir E, Forshei S, Fluge G, T. Marestad. “Randomized controlled trial of Infantile Colic treated with Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation” Arch Dis-Child 2001; 84: 138-141.
- Miller J, Newell D and J. Bolton. “Efficacy of Chiropractic Manual Therapy on Infant Colic: A Pragmatic Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial” Journal of Manipulative And Physiological Therapeutics June 30: 2012.
Otitis Media (Ear Infections)
- Fallon, Joan M., DC, FICCP. “Role of the Chiropractic Adjustment in the Care of 332 Children with Otitis Media.” J Clinical Chiro Ped 2.2 (1997): 174-83. Print.
- Stone-McCoy, Pamela, DC, CACCP, and Chantelle Korn, DC. “Resolution of Otitis Media & Avoidance of Tympanostomy Tubes in a 16-Month Old with Birth Trauma Following Subluxation Based Care: A Case Study and Selective Review of Literature.” J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health May.28 (2013): 39-46. Print.
- Ear Infections: A retrospective study examining improvements from chiropractic care and analyzing for influencing factors. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 1996. Mar-Apr: 19 (3) 169-77
- Strun, G. Richard and Cheryl Hawk. “Effects of chiropractic care on dizziness, neck pain, and balance; a single-group, pre-experimental feasibility study” J. Chiropractic Medicine. 2009 Dec; 8(4) 156-164.
- Hawk C., Rupert R., Colonvega M., Hall S., Boyd J., Hyland J. Chiropractic care for older adults at risk for falls: a preliminary assessment. J Am Chiropr Assoc. 2005;42(September/October):10–18.
- Hawk C., Pfefer M., Strunk R., Ramcharan M., Uhl N. Feasibility study of short-term effects of chiropractic manipulation on older adults with impaired balance. J Chiropr Med. 2007;6:121–131.PubMed
- Hawk C., Cambron J. Chiropractic care for older adults: effects on balance, dizziness and chronic pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32 PubMed.
- Hawk C., Cambron J., Pfefer M.T. Pilot study of the effect of a limited and extended course of chiropractic care on balance, chronic pain and dizziness in older adults. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32
Constipation, Irritable Bowel
Syndrome (IBS) and Incontinence
- Eulitt, H. Kala, DC, and Vivian Giannakakis, DC. “Resolution of Chronic Constipation, Fecal Incontinence, and Abdominal Pain in an 8 Year Old Child Following Chiropractor Care: A Case Study & Selective Review of the Literature.” A. Vertebral Subluxation Res Jan.20 (2014): n. pag. Print.
- Manabe, Noriaki, Toshiaki Tanaka, Jiro Hata, Hiroaki Kusunoki, and Ken Haruma. “Pathophysiology Underlying Irritable Bowel Syndrome -From the Viewpoint of Dysfunction of Autonomic Nervous System Activity-.” Journal of Smooth Muscle Research 45.1 (2009): 15-23. Print.
- Graham, Robert L., DC, and Richard A. Pistolese, BS. “An Impairment Rating Analysis Of Asthmatic Children Under Chiropractic Care.” J Vertebral Sub Res 1.4 (1997): 1-8. Print.
- Glaberzon, Brian J., DC, MHSc, Jenna Arts, BA (Hons), and Emily McManus, BScK (Hons), MHA. “The Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Pediatric Health Conditions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.” J Can Chiropr Assoc. 56.2 (2012): 128-41. Print. Pediatric Chiropractor
- Bronfort, Gert, Roni L. Evans, Paul Kubic, and Patty Filkinb. “Chronic Pediatric Asthma and Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation: A Prospective Clinical Series and Randomized Clinical Pilot Study.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 24.6 (2001): 369-77. Print.
- Khorshid, Khaled A., Roy Sweat, D. Zemba and Brett Zemba. “Clinical Efficacy of Upper Cervical Versus Full Spine Chiropractic Care on Children with Autism: A Randomized Clinical Trial”. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation
Research. JVSR. (2006): 1-7.
- Alcantara, Joel. “A systematic review of the literature on the chiropractic care of patients with autism spectrum disorder”. J. Explore. Nov-Dec 2011: 7(6): 384-90.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive
- Alcantara, Joel, and James Davis. “The Chiropractic Care of Children With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Retrospective Case Series.” EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing 6.3 (2010): 173-82.
- Reed, W. R., DC, S. Beavers, DC, S. K. Reddy, DC, and G. Kern, DC. “Chiropractic Management of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 17.9 (194): 596-600. Print.
- Bastecki, V, Harrison, D. and J. W. Hass. “Cervical Kyphosis Is A Possible Link To Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” J. Maniulative Physiological Therapy. 2004: 27 e14.
- Alcantara J, Plaugher G, Klemp DD, Salem C. “Chiropractic care of a patient with temporomandibular disorder and atlas subluxation.” J. Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002 Jan; 25(1): 63-70.
- Cherian K, Cherian J, Cook C, Kaltenbach JA. “Improving tinnitus with mechanical treatment of the cervical spine and jaw.” J Am Acad Audio. 2013 Jul-Aug; 24(7): 544-55.
- Emary, P. “Chiropractic management of a 40-year-old female patient with Meniere Disease” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2010 Mar; 9(1): 22-27
- Kessinger, B. “Vertigo, Tinnitus, and Hearing Loss in the Geriatric Patient”. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 2000, 23 (5), 352–362.
Nocturnal Enuresis (Bed Wetting)
- Reed, W. R., DC, S. Beavers, DC, S. K. Reddy, DC, and G. Kern, DC. “Chiropractic Management of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 17.9 (194): 596-600. Print.
- Poecke, Ailsa J. Van, and Christina Cunliffe. “Chiropractic Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Case Series of 33 Consecutive Patients.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 32.8 (2009): 675-81.
- Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, October 2009, followed 33 children ages 3 to 18 through chiropractic care for nocturnal enuresis. 66% of participants were still dry 1 year after beginning care.
- Alcantara, Joel, DC, Gregg Stern, DC, and Rosemary E. Oman, DC, MSc, FASBE. “Female Infertility, Subluxation & Chiropractic Care: A Case Series and Selective Review of the Literature.” J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health(2009): n. pag. Print.
- Bakris, G., M. Dickholtz, P. M. Meyer, G. Kravitz, E. Avery, M. Miller, J. Brown, C. Woodfield, and B. Bell. “Atlas Vertebra Realignment and Achievement of Arterial Pressure Goal in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Study.” Journal of Human Hypertension (2007): n. pag. Print. waterdown
Breastfeeding and Latching Difficulties
- Slak, Linda, DC, CACCP, CABCDD, and Katherine A. Wilson, DC. “Resolution of Breastfeeding Difficulty Following Subluxation Based Chiropractic Care.” J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health Jan.17 (2013): 7-10. Print.
- Alcantara, Joel, Jeanne Ohm, and Derek Kunz. “The Safety and Effectiveness of Pediatric Chiropractic: A Survey of Chiropractors and Parents in a Practice-Based Research Network.” EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing 5.5 (2009): 290-95.
- Alcantara, Joel. “A Critical Appraisal of the Systematic Review on Adverse Events Associated With Pediatric Spinal Manipulative Therapy. A Chiropractic Perspective”. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal and Family Health. March 9, 2010.
- Thiel, Hw, Je Bolton, S. Docherty, and Jc Portlock. “Safety of Chiropractic Manipulation of the Cervical Spine: A Prospective National Survey.” Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 11 (2006): 47. Print.
- Oliphant, Drew. “Safety of Spinal Manipulation in the Treatment of Lumbar Disk Herniations: A Systematic Review and Risk Assessment.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 27.3 (2004): 197-210. Print.
- Klougart, N., DC, C. Leboeuf-Yde, DC, and L. R. Rasmussen, DC. “Safety in Chiropractic Practice, Part I; The Occurrence of Cerebrovascular Accidents after Manipulation to the Neck in Denmark from 1978-1988.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 19.6 (1996): 371-77. Print.
- Alcantara, Joal, Ohm, Jeanne and Kunz, K. “A practice-ased prospective stuyd on the incidence and prevalence of adverse events associated with pediatric chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy”. International Pediatric Chiropractic Association. Print.
- Joyce, E. Miller, Benfield, K. “Adverse Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy in Children Younger Than 3 Years: A Retrospective Study in a Chiropractic Teaching Clinic”. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. July 2008 V.31 Issue 6. Pg: 419-423.
- Joel Alcantara “A critical appraisal of the systematic review on adverse events associated with pediatric spinal manipulative therapy: A chiropractic perspective”. Pediatric, Maternal and Family Health March 9; 2010. (a critical look into the Vohra et al study of 2007).
- Klougart, N., DC, C. Leboeuf-Yde, DC, and L. R. Rasmussen, DC. “Safety in Chiropractic Practice. Part II: Treatment to the Upper Neck and the Rate of Cerebrovascular Incidents.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 19.9 (1996): 563-69. Print.
- Cassidy, J.D., E. Boyle, Pierre Cote, Yaohua He, Sheilah Hogg-Johnson,Frank Silver and Susan Bondy. “Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care”. SPINE (2008) 45: S176-S193
- Dabbs, V., DC, and W. J. Lauretti, DC. “A Risk Assessment of Cervical Manipulation vs. NSAIDs for the Treatment of Neck Pain.” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 18.8 (1995): 530-36.Print.
- Hayes, N, Bezilla, T. “Incidence of iatrogenesis Associated with Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment of Pediatric Patients”. Journal of the American Osteopath Association. 2006,106: 605-608
- Todd, AJ, Carroll, MT, Mitchell, EK. “Forces of Commonly Used Chiropractic Techniques for Children: A review of the literature”. J. Manipulative Physiology Therapeutic. 2016 July -Aug 39(6) 401-10.
Pregnancy and the Webster
- Ohm, Jeanne, DC, and Joel Alcantara, DC. “The Webster Technique: Definition, Application and Implications.” J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health May.10 (2012): 49-53. Print.
- Sadr, Shabnam, Neda Pourkiani-Allah-Abad, and Kent Stuber. “The Treatment Experience of Patients with Low Back Pain during Pregnancy and Their Chiropractors: A Qualitative Study.”
- Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 20.1 (2012): 32. Print.
- Decanio, Tim, D.C. “Are Your Kids Save” – Force applied to an infant spine during delivery. ICPA (2007) Issue #15
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